Nr. 07

Computers Adv.(V-7)

Computernørd II

1. Lær det grundlæggende mærke

2. Hvad er definitionen på følgende termer:

a. Baud hastighed

b. Dip kontakt

c. Data base

d. Tekstbehandling

e. Nanosekund

f. DOS n. Nybble

g. Internt modem

h. Eksternt modem

i. Perifer

j. Standard disk drev

k. Et "K" hukommelse

l. Bit

m. Byte

o. Ord

p. Typesnit

3. Hvilket arbejde er repræsentreret af følgende personer der arbejder med computer:

a. Operatør

b. Data-indtaster

c. Programmør

d. System analytiker

e. Konsulent

4. Vis eller beskriv hvordan man beskytter et computersystem mod støv, snavs, statisk elektricitet, eller andre mulige farefaktorer, som kan ødelægge eller skade et computer system.

5. Hvordan kan man afgøre om en computer læser eller skriver på en disk? Hvilke forholdsregler skal tages mens computeren udfører denne handling?

6. Hvad er forskellen på seriel og parallel kommunikation?

7. Hvad betyder det at en computer er "compatibel"?

8. Hvilket lovmæssigt ansvar ligger ved software når man taler om: Public domain, shareware og copyright?

9. Vis at du med fremgang kan udføre følgende med en computer:

a. Rense skærmen uden at slukke for strømmen.

b. Vis indholdet af en diskette på computerns skærm.

c. Lav en diskette til brug i diskettedrevet med navnet "Spejderne".

d. Gør det samme som oven en gang mere, men placer denne gang systemfilerne på disken automatisk når du formaterer disketten.

e. Vis at du kan finde dårlige sektorer på en floppydisk eller din harddisk.

f. Skift navnet på en fil på disketten til et andet navn.

g. Kopier hele indholdet fra en diskette til en anden som et "spejlbillede.".

h. Vis at du kan udføre tidligere ved at lade computerne sammenligne de to disketter og vise at der ikke er nogen forskel mellem dem.

i. Vis hvordan man kopierer en fil til en diskette.

j. Vis hvordan man sletter en fil fra en diskette.

10. Undersøg mindst fire programmeringssprog (f.eks. BASIC, FORTRAN, COBAL, PASCAL C) for at finde ud af hvorfor de blev udviklet og til hvilken type applikation de bruges. Skriv en 200 ords rapport om de du har fundet ud af, eller giv en tre minuter lang forklaring.

11. Vis færdighed i brugen af tre af følgende:

a. Et tekstbehandlingsprogram ved at gøre følgende: Skriv og print ud ett brev til mindst fem forskellige mennesker hvor du bruger den samme tekst, men hvert brev skal være personlig ved at adressaternes navne vises mindst tre gange og brug følgende funktioner i tekstbehandlingsprogrammet:

1. Højre margin

2. Centreret titel

3. Ændring i margin og sidelængde.

4. Flyt af afsnit

5. Gem.

b. Et databaseprogram ved at lave en fortegnelse over mindst 15 personer, deres adresse, telefon nummer, fødselsdage og alder. Vis at du kan udføre en sortering i fortegnelsen i alfabetisk orden med efternavnene, liste over postnumre, efter alder og efter fødselsdag.

c. Et regnskabsprogram ved at udføre et af følgende:

1. Lav en fakturafortegnelse over debitorer

2. Lav en fakturafortegnelse over kreditorer

3. Lav en regnskabsjournal og finansierings rapport fra hovedbogen.

d. Et desk top program hvor du laver en tre siders tekst med to spalter, med mindst fire forskellige grafikelement.(clip-art), to forskellige typesnit, og en overskrift.

e. Et regneark hvor du viser at du kan addere søjler, flytte søjler, lav en beregning i et felt, gem, reload, og print ud. Vis at du kan udføre en addition af søjle A og B, division ved søjle C og resultatet i søjle D.

f. Et uddannelsesprogram hvor du instruerer en elev i klasse 1 til 4 hvordan eleven kan udføre en operation i forhold til dennes alder.

12. Besøg edb-afdelingen i en virksomhed eller få en medarbejder fra en EDB-virksomhed til at komme til din klasse eller forening. Som et minimum skal du indsamle følgende information:

a. Hvilken type computer bruges (mainframe, min eller micro)?

b. Med hvilke programmer bruger computerne?

c. Kommunikerer computerne med hinanden og hvordan?

d. Hvordan udføres forretningsservice, vedligehold, ændringer og opgraderinger af hardware og software? Hvilken procentsats eller beløb er budgeteret til computerindkøb og vedligehold?

e. Hvilke er backup procedurerne og andre forholdsregler anvendes.

f. Hvilken uddannelse er der behov for og/eller anvendelig til en karriere indenfor data?

 

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Computer, Advanced
Honor Helps

The helps for the Advanced Computer honor are as follows:

 

  1. Have the Basic Computer Honor.

     

  2. What is the definition of the following terms:
    1. Baud Rate - A unit of measurement used to express the speed (bits per second) which a modem sends and receives data.
    2. Dip Switch - One of usually several very small switches that can switched up or down. Depending on the sequence of up and down switch it computer will change a particular setting. At one time dip switches were common on modems and for changing com port assignments and IRQs.
    3. Data Base - A collection of related files. The files in a database can share information.
    4. Word Processing - The process of creating editing storing and printing documents. It replaced the typewriter.
    5. Nanosecond - A unit of measurement for measuring time required to access data from memory. It is measured in billionths of a second.
    6. DOS - Acronym for Disk Operating System. DOS is a special program that tells the computer how to interact with the peripheral components of the computer system.
    7. Internal Modem - A unit that changes computer signals in to sound waves and vice versa, so that data can be sent and received by telephone that is located inside the computer as an expansion card.
    8. External Modem - Same as internal modem except it is located outside the of the computer and plugs into a serial port in the back of the computer.
    9. Peripheral - A computer attachment that is not needed for the basic system to work; for example, a mouse, a CD-ROM, a modem.
    10. Default Disk Drive - The drive the computer automatically is located on or starts from when computer automatically is located on or starts from when computer is booted. Most computers default to the C Drive (hard drive).
    11. A "K" of Memory - 1,024 bytes of memory. Roughly each bytes holds 1 character of information.
    12. Bit - Stands for binary digit It is 1/8 of a byte. Bits consist of 1's and 0's. It takes 8 bits to make 1 byte.
    13. Byte - 8 bits a unit of measurement that measures a computers memory capacity. One bytes roughly equals on character.
    14. Nibble - Half a byte or 4 bits.
    15. Word - A fixed number of bytes which varies from one type of computer to another. Typically, the word size is the length of a normal machine instruction for a given computer. Numbers in a computer are usually stored in a word or pair of words.
    16. Font - A general shape of a set of characters i.e. script versus print.

     

  3. What is the work of the following people associated with computers:
    1. Operator - An individual who is responsible for mounting tapes and disks, making backups, and generally ensuring that the computer runs properly.
    2. Data Entry - An individual who enters information (Data) into a computerized software program (i.e. database or spreadsheet program).
    3. Programmer - A person who writes programs (Software) that gives the computer specific instructions as to what to do and when.
    4. Systems Analyst - A person who studies the steps or system used to do a certain job then they plan or design how a computer could assist in performing the task more efficiently.
    5. Consultant - An independent person who is hired by the company to review problems and concerns and recommend ways to correct them using the computer. It is very similar to a systems analyst except that a systems analyst usually works for the company while a consultant is another company or independent contractor.

     

  4. Show or describe how to protect a computer system from dust, dirt, static electricity, or other potentially dangerous factors that could hamper or hurt a computer system.
      First, in order to protect your computer system from dust dirt and static electricity always ground yourself before touching even the keyboard. To ground yourself just touch something metal before you touch the keyboard or computer. This will discharge any built up static electric it you may have in your body. The same as touching a metal door knob after walking across the carpet. That shock has enough power to blow any computer component it comes in contact with.

      Secondly to protect from dirt and dust purchase a dust cover for the monitor, keyboard, CPU and printer when not in use.

      Thirdly, use compressed air to spray out power supply fan and disk drives once a month.

     

  5. How can it be determined when the computer is reading or writing on a disk? What precautions should be taken while the computer is performing this function?
      The disk drive light will come on when reading and writing , as well as a spinning noise or clunking noise when the disk is being spun or the read/write head is being positioned.

      Never bump or move the CPU while a disk (hard drive, floppy or CD) is being read or written to. This may cause a skip of a scratch on the magnetic tape media which will render it unusable. Also never take a floppy disk out of a drive while the light is still on as this may cause a scratch and ruin the diskette.

     

  6. What is the difference between serial and parallel communications?
      Serial communications - Serial means one at a time. Data is transferred one byte at a time.

      Parallel communications - Data is transferred parallel two bytes at a time. Obviously parallel communications would be faster than serial.

     

  7. What does it mean for a computer to be compatible?
      There used to be different types of PCs such as Tandy, Atari, Commodore, IBM, and Apple. Each had their own software as technology increased most computers became IBM compatible. This means they use the same software as the IBM PC some are called IBM compatibles or IBM Clones which mean a generic machine that look act and uses IBM software. The two basic non-compatible PC's are the IBM and Macintosh.

     

  8. What legal responsibility applies to software with the following designation:
    1. Public domain - Software created by someone for public use and enjoyment. It is not copyrighted and it can be copied by anyone as many times as they wish. There are no license fees associated with public domain software.
    2. Share Ware - Software that can be downloaded or copied and used, however if you want the most up to date version and all manuals you are required to register it and pay a fee.
    3. Copyright - Means for software just what it does for books. It cannot be copied or altered without the express permission of the creator. It is a protection under the law that forbids any to copy the software and use it without paying for it. If you copy a program and use it this is called software piracy and it is illegal.

     

  9. Successfully, using the operation system of a personal computer, do the following:
    1. Clear the screen of the computer without turning the power off.
        At the DOS prompt type CLS and press enter.
    2. Show the contents of a floppy disk on the computer screen.
        At the DOS prompt type Dir A: and press enter.
    3. Prepare a disk for use in a floppy drive giving it the label name of "Pathfinder".
        At the DOS prompt type format A: and press enter the screen will then say "Insert new disk in drive a and press enter". Insert the new disk in drive A and press enter. The computer will count percentage complete until 100 is reached. A message will appear saying "enter volume label" (not more than 11 characters) type in Pathfinder and press enter a message will then display saying "do you wish to Format another Y/N?" press N and enter you return to the DOS prompt and you are finished your new disk is ready to save files on.

        NOTE: NEVER type Format C: and press enter unless you know what you are doing and NEVER type format and press enter. This would allow you format your hard drive and you would lose all information and would have to reinstall operating system and everything.

    4. Do the same as above again, but this time place the system files on the disk automatically when preparing (formatting) the disk.
        At the DOS prompt type in Format A: /s and press enter then follow the remaining directions above.
    5. Show how to check for bad sectors on a floppy or hard disk.
        If using DOS 6.0 or less type Chkdsk /f and press enter. If using DOS 6.0 or higher type Scandisk and press enter and be sure to perform the through scan when asked this is what checks each sector.
    6. Rename a file on the floppy disk to a different name.
        type REN A:oldfile.nam A:newfile.nam and press enter
    7. Copy the entire contents of one floppy disk to another in a perfect "mirror image".
        type DISKCOPY A: A: and press enter
    8. Show that you have successfully completed the previous by having the computer "compare" the two disks and show no difference between them.
        type DISKCOMP A: A: and press enter
    9. Show how to copy a file onto a floppy disk.
        type COPY autoexec.bat A: and press enter
    10. Show how to delete a file from a floppy disk.
        type DEL a:autoexec.bat and press enter

     

  10. Research at least four different computer languages (such as BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, C) to find out why they were developed and for what type of application they are used. Write a 200 word report, or give a three minute oral report, on your findings.
      Four of the most common 3rd generation languages were BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL and RPG.

      BASIC is an acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASIC was developed as an easy English like language to introduce beginners to programming.

      FORTRAN is an abbreviation for FORmula TRANslator. Fortran was created in the 1950's, it was the first high-level programming language. FORTRAN was obviously designed to handle complicated mathematical calculations. involving algebraic equations. It is most widely used by scientists and engineers. One of the principal contributors to the development and birth of FORTRAN and COBOL was Admiral Grace Hopper, one of the first women Admirals in the U.S. NAVY.

      COBOL is an acronym for COmmon Business Oriented Language. It was developed in 1960 for large business corporations in conjunction with the U.S. NAVY. It provides an excellent way to create programs to perform many accounting calculations like payroll and subsequently to produce the appropriate corresponding reports. COBOL is a very English like language that is very cumbersome and wordy. It is not unusual for a program to take up 40 11 x 14 size forms to process a payroll ledger and print a report. It is very easy to learn but very difficult not to make a mistake because of the length of the programs.

      RPG is an acronym for Report Program Generator and was developed in 1964 by IBM. RPG uses special forms to complete and produce business related reports quickly and easily.

Skill Level 2