Nr. 06

Computers (V-6)

Computernørd I

1. Skriv 200 ord eller giv en tre minutters mundtlig rapport af historien bag computeren.

2. Hvad er definitionen på følgende termer:

a. Hardware

b. Software

c. Floppy disk

d. Hard disk

e. Skærm

f. Microcomputer

g. Minicomputer

h. ROM

i. RAM

j. Alfanumerisk

k. CPU

l. Printkort

m. Markør

n. Port

o. Program

p. COS eller OS

3. Hvilke passende behandlings- og opbevaringstekniker er floppydiskene?

4. Beskriv funktionen og peg ud følgende dele i en personlig computer.

a. Tastatur

b. Skærm

c. Printer

d. CPU

e. Diskettedrev

5. Kende forskellen på og brugen af følgende printere:

a. Skrivehjulprinter

b. Matrixprinter

c. Laserprinter

d. Plotter

e. Ink-jet

f. Thermisk

6. Vis eller beskriv hvordan man beskytter et computer system fra støv, snavs, statisk elektricitet, strøm indgange og udgange, eller andre mulige farlige faktorer som kan ødelægge eller skade et computersystem.

7. Omtal mindst fire indgangsenheder til en computer.

8. Hvad menes det med at lave "en backup" af en disk eller fil? Hvorfor er det vigtig?

9. Hvad er præventivt vedligehold? Hvorfor er det vigtig?

10. Vis at du kan "boot", installere og anvende et program der bruges i en computer. (Dog ikke spil).

11. Fortæl om flere måder hvor en enkelt familiemedlem eller hele familien kan bruge en computer til andet end spil.

 

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Computer, Basic
Honor Helps

The helps for the Basic Computer honor are as follows:

 

  1. Write a 200 word report, or give a three minute oral report, about the history of computers.
    • Example report:
      The first computers were developed during the Second World War. They were used exclusively in military applications. They were vastly big and slow in order to work In the fifty's , the use of these primitive computers was used in some of the biggest organizations in the United States. By the seventies almost all the big companies had, at least, some of the gigantic systems of computers. But the small and median companies adapted to the smallest systems. But they still were outside of the reach of the people average.
      By the seventies (1974) Intel Corporation developed the first microprocessor known as the 8008. With this processor the computers were made smaller and cheap.
      The first domestic computers were developed by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, they entered the market the Apple I. Almost 500 units were sold. To the little time the market went out to the Apple II. At difference from the first computers the Apple II leave armed and it possessed an unit to reading and writing and an operating system of disk (both developed by Wozniak).
      Afterwards other PC's appeared and the people began to use them in their homes and small business. From then the computers are here to stay!

     

  2. What is the definition of the following terms:
    • Hardware - Your computer is made up of many parts called hardware. Your hardware runs software-programs that translate the instructions you send to your computer into a language it can understand.
    • Software - Is the set of programs, procedures, and related documentation associated with a computer system.
    • Floppy Disk - A floppy Disk drive holds a removable floppy disk, which has less storage capacity than a hard disk. Floppy disk are removable and come in various sizes. Many systems use 5.25 inch floppy disk. This floppy disk is thin and flexible, and therefore somewhat fragile. Some system use 3.5 inch floppy disk. This kind of floppy disk is protected by a hard plastic cover.
    • Hard Disk - A hard disk drive contains a non-removable disk that is built into your system. With a hard drive, you can store large amounts of information in one convenient place, instead of storing it in many floppy disk.
    • Mainframe - During the 1960s a CPU was usually physically the largest and most complex unit in a computer system and was sometimes also called the mainframe.
    • Micro-computer - Personal computers are single-user machines, whereas larger computers generally have multiple users. The first generation of personal computers were distinguishable from minicomputers and mainframe computers by a small memory capacity, typically in the 16-64 kilobyte range (a kilobyte, or K, is 1,024 BYTES). Models available from the mid-1980s, however, had memories in the megabyte to gigabyte range (a megabyte, or M, is 1,024K, and a gigabyte is 1,024M); this increased memory capacity equaled and even surpassed the power of earlier mini- and mainframe computers.
    • Mini-computer - Minicomputers are compact electronic digital computers that were developed in the 1960s. They were so called because they were smaller than large mainframe computers. (The still smaller microcomputers appeared in the 1970s.) Minicomputers use electronic technology equivalent to that used in microcomputers but have memory capacities and speeds nearer to those of mainframes.
    • ROM - Acronym for Read Only Memory. Semiconductor memory that can be read from but not written to, containing instructions and /or data. ROM can also be used to refer to any type of read only memory, including PROM and EPROM.
    • RAM - Stands for Random Access Memory. The instruction that your computer gets and the information your computer processes are kept in RAM during your work session.
    • Alphanumeric - any character of the alphabet that uses a computer. It could also include numbers.
    • CPU - Stands for Central Processing Unit. It's the brain of your computer. This is the place where your computer interprets and process information. Abbreviation for central processing unit. The portion of a computer that performs computations, executes instructions and transfers information between all parts of the computer. Microcomputers contain single-chip central processing units, or microprocessors.
    • Circuit Board - A piece of Hardware consisting of electronic components attached to a fiber glass or plastic foundation. Circuit Boards fit into the expansion slots and control the communications between the computer and peripheral devices. Other terms used for circuit board include card, printed circuit board, option card, and expansion card.
    • Cursor - The blinking marker on the screen that shows where the characters you enter from the keyboard will appear on the screen.
    • Port - The portion of a computer or a hardware device through which data is sent or received. Ports are used to connect computers to devices such as printers, monitors and modems.
    • Program - An executable file that launches an application. A program file has an .EXE, .PIF, .COM or .BAT extension. For example, PROGMAN.EXE is the program file to launch Windows Program Manager. A program is a coded set of instructions that interprets the information you give to the computer with the keyboard or a mouse, and then directs your computer to carry out a task.
    • DOS or OS - Acronym for Disk Operating System. It's manage the flow of information to and from various parts of your computer system. Dos is an operating system (OS), or set of software programs that manages the computer. The programs control how memory (both ROM and RAM) is used, how data is accessed, and other basic functions. DOS also provides utilities that allow you to prepare diskettes and hard drives for use, make backup copies of your data programs, and display or print copies of programs or files.

     

  3. What are the proper handling and storage techniques of floppy disks?
    • Store floppy disk in a safe place, away from dust, moisture, magnetic field (such as televisions, speakers, and computers monitors), and extreme temperatures.
    • Label each floppy disk so that you can identify the information stored in it. Place the label on the front of the disk, at the top, so that the label does not stick to any exposed areas on the disk.
    • Do not write on diskette labels with ballpoint pens. Avoid bending or folding the disk.
    • Never touch the exposed area of the diskette surface.
    • Keep diskettes away from all magnets and magnetic or electrical fields.
    • Do not expose disk to moisture, dust, or high temperatures.

     

  4. Describe the function of and point out the following components of a personal computer:
    • Keyboard -
    • Monitor - The monitor has a screen that display information, such as the instructions you send to your computer and the information and results your computer sends back after interpreting your instructions. The screen may display information in one color or in several colors.
    • System Unit or Central Processing Unit - Abbreviation for central processing unit. The portion of a computer that performs computations, executes instructions and transfers information between all parts of the computer. Microcomputers contain single-chip central processing units, or microprocessors.
    • Printer - A printer prints the information processed by your computer. Printers vary in printing speed an output capabilities. For example, some letter-quality printers can print high-quality text quickly; some dot matrix and laser printers can print both text and graphics.
    • Disk Drive - Your computer's disk drives move information stored on disk into and out of RAM. For example, your computer can read software instructions from a disk into RAM, and write your data to a disk for safekeeping.

     

  5. Know the difference between and the uses for the following printers:
    • Letter Quality - Letter Quality Formed-character printers can produce letter-quality print, like a typewriter.
    • Dot Matrix - Dot Matrix impact printers, which employ a physical hammering device to impart images on paper, It employs a matrix of small pegs that, hit from behind, impart a series of dots on paper Formed-character printers are impact printers containing fixed characters on the ends of metallic or plastic arms that are forced against an inked ribbon and paper, producing a sharp image. An example is the daisy wheel, a flat, rotatable wheel with individual characters at the ends of spokes.
    • Laser - printer that employs the technique of the laser in order to the print data.
    • Plotter - Has one or more pens that moves under the paper under the control of the computer in order to produce an image.
    • Ink Jet - Ink Jet printers, which fire small bursts of ink at the paper. Ink-jet printers share the flexibility of dot-matrix printers and operate more quietly. In addition, ink-jet printers can be adapted to complex color printing.
    • Thermal - The print takes place by burning paper with a special treatment. A machine of fax works similar to.

     

  6. Show or describe how to protect a computer system from dust, dirt, static electricity, power surges and outages, or other potentially dangerous factors that could hamper or hurt a computer system.
    • Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the computer and in the documentation.
    • Do not use computers near water.
    • Do not place computers on an unstable cart, stand, or table. The computer may fall, causing serious damage to the product.
    • This products should be operated from the type of source indicated on the marking label.
    • Never set the computer on a radiator, heat register, or other heat source.
    • Never insert any foreign objects into the computer cabinet slots. Fire, electrical shock, and damage can occur if such objects short out high voltage parts.
    • Turn off the computer, and unplug it from the electrical outlet before cleaning.
    • Use damp cloth for cleaning. Never apply liquid or aerosol cleaners directly to the computer.
    • If the computer gets wet, unplug all system power cables and contact technical support for assistance.

     

  7. Name at least four input devices for computers.
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
    • Light Pen
    • Floppy Disk
    • Scanner
    • Modem

     

  8. What does it mean to back up a disk or file? Why is it important?
    • It is to make sure copies of all system data are available (generally hard disk drives.) There are three main reason for doing backups:
      • To safeguard your data against a system crash or some natural disaster.
      • To protect your user's files against accidental deletion.
      • To ensure a smooth transition of data when reinstalling or upgrading a system.

     

  9. What is computer preventive maintenance? Why is it important?
    • Preventive maintenance: they are revisions to a computer in order to avoid to fail. Some operations of maintenance include: general cleaning of the computer, search of defects in hard disks, keyboards and so on. The preventive maintenance is important because so avoids that the computer remains useless. When the computer "crash" the repairs are expensive and the lost data sometimes are too much valuable that one could not measure it in time and money.

     

  10. Successfully boot, load (install), and prepare a software program for use in a computer system (no computer games).
    • This should be left to opinion of the instructor.

     

  11. Tell several ways an individual or family could use a personal computer other than for games.
    • The computer could be use in order to take family finance.
    • Translation of documents from a language to another.
    • For graphic designs.
    • In order to obtain a better education.
    • For countable applications.
    • In order to connect to the Internet.
    • These are a few of the thousand of things in which you could use the PC.