Nr. 13

Cycling Adv. (R-13)

Cykling II

The requirements for the Advanced Cycling honor are as follows:
  1. Describe how to select the correct frame size, handle bar, assemblying, and saddle height to fit one's body size.
  2. Describe briefly all the desirable features of a bicycle used for long distance touring.
  3. Take apart, clean, and put back together the bearings in the front and rear wheels, headset, and bottom bracket.
  4. True a rear wheel, making sure it is properly dished.
  5. Select the front and rear sprockets combination that would give the best results under the following conditions:
    1. Riding in hilly terrain
    2. Touring with packs on the bicycle
    3. Riding in level country
  6. Explain how the riding characteristics of a bicycle are affected by:
    1. The geometry of the bicycle frame including:
      1. Head and seat tube angles
      2. Fork rate
      3. Chain stay length
      4. Bottom bracket height
      5. Wheel base length
    2. The kind of wheels used including:
      1. Clencher or tubular tires
      2. Small or large frame hubs
      3. Number of spokes used on each wheel
      4. Number of spokes each spoke crosses
  7. Make a list of desirable equipment items to be taken on a multi-day bicycle tour, including shelter and cooking equipment.
  8. Know safety precautions to observe while bicycling.
  9. What are the advantages of drafting? Know how to safely and properly draft.
  10. Know the different clothing and safety equipment used in bicycling and the advantages of each.
  11. Have the following riding record while working on this honor:
    1. Make three single-day 20-mile rides in different locations.
    2. Make a 100-mile tour, involving three days of riding.
  12. Write a 500-word description of the 100-mile tour.
Skill Level 2

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Advanced Cycling
Helps

The helps for the Advanced Cycling honor are as follows:

  1. Describe how to select the correct frame size, handle bar, assemblying, and saddle height to fit one's body size.
    • The frame size should be such that the rider can stand flat-footed astride the frame and still have an inch or two clearance.
    • Choose the correct handle bar for the job. Touring, racing, ATB, and aero handle bars all have their own purpose. The handle bar should be wide enough so that the rider's arms extend straight ahead or reach in just slightly.
    • The top of the saddle to the center of the crank should be .885 times the distance from the rider's crotch to the floor when standing in stocking feet. Another method of determining saddle height is to raise the saddle as high as possible without causing the rider's hips to rock. If the seat is too low, it can cause cramping and possible injury to the knees due to additional stress. If the seat is too high, it can cause the knee to hyperextend and become injured and cause excessive motion on the saddle causing a sore rear end.

     

  2. Describe briefly all the desirable features of a bicycle used for long distance touring.
    • Comfort is the key word. The bicycle must fit the rider and a comfortable saddle is a must.
    • Have the proper gears on the bike. For example, riding in the hills will require a larger range of gears, especially on the low end, than when riding on flat terrain. Many touring bikes have a triple crank (three sprockets on the crank).
    • 4-cross (the number of spokes a given spoke crosses over between the hub and the rim) spokes in the wheels are good because they are stronger for carrying a load and give a little smoother ride.
    • Some sort of lights even if you aren't planning to ride in the dark. Sometimes things don't always go according to plan.
    • Fenders are nice to have because if you do any amount of touring you will be riding in the rain.
    • Racks and bags to carry the gear.

     

  3. Take apart, clean, and put back together the bearings in the front and rear wheels, headset, and bottom bracket.

     

  4. True a rear wheel, making sure it is properly dished.

    Note: Several books are available at your local library that will cover bicycle maintenance and repair.

     

  5. Select the front and rear sprockets combination that would give the best results under the following conditions:
    • Riding in hilly terrain - When riding in the hills, it is nice to have a triple crank on the bicycle with a gear ratio at least as low as 1:1.
    • Touring with packs on the bicycle - When touring with loaded packs, a gear ratio at least as low as 1:1 is nice to have. A lower ratio would be desirable if touring in hills.
    • Riding in level country - A triple crank is not necessary when riding in level country. A gear ratio of as high as 52:12 is nice to have on the level.

     

  6. Explain how the riding characteristics of a bicycle are affected by:
    • The geometry of the bicycle frame including:
      1. Head and seat tube angles - The head and seat tube angles will affect the turning radius and steering of the bicycle. The more vertical the head tube the greater the steering response.
      2. Fork rate - Fork rate affects how 'snappy' the steering feels. A large fork rate makes for a slow response.
      3. Chain stay length - A longer chain stay will absorb more of the shock from the road and give a smoother ride.
      4. Bottom bracket height - The height of the bottom bracket from the ground will affect the center of gravity. The higher the bottom bracket is from the ground, the higher the rest of the bike will be. This raises the center of gravity farther off the ground making the rider feel a little more top heavy.
      5. Wheel base length - A longer wheel base will yield a greater turn radius. A longer wheel base will give the rider a more gentle ride because more of the shock will me taken up by the frame.
    • The kind of wheels used including:
      1. Clencher or tubular tires - Compared to clencher tires with inner tubes, tubular tires are lighter and have less rolling resistance. This means the rider will travel faster for the same amount of effort.
      2. Small or large frame hubs - Larger hubs will have more bearings in them for less rolling resistance, but will also be much heavier.
      3. Number of spokes used on each wheel - A greater number of spokes on a wheel will increase the strength of the wheel, but it will also increase the wind resistance.
      4. Number of spokes each spoke crosses - The greater the number of spokes each spoke crosses, the smoother the ride. More crosses means more shock absorption.

     

  7. Make a list of desirable equipment items to be taken on a multi-day bicycle tour, including shelter and cooking equipment.
    • Backpack tent
    • Sleeping bag
    • Sleeping pad
    • Backpack stove and fuel
    • Cooking kit and utensils
    • Spare tube(s) and pump
    • First Aid Kit
    • Flashlight (can use detachable headlight)
    • Tools for making adjustments and repairs
    • Optional items
      • Credit card
      • Teddy bear (doubles as a pillow)
      • Spare tire

     

  8. Know safety precautions to observe while bicycling.
    • Never ride without a helmet. Helmets are much less expensive than brain surgery.
    • Never ride while wearing headphones. You can't hear what is going on around you. In many states it is not legal.
    • Watch the other guy. A bicycle is much more difficult to see than other cars. Drivers of cars are used to looking for other cars and will pull out right in front of you. So when there are other vehicles in the area, be prepared for anything. If you do get run off the road, try to stay calm. Don't throw rocks or yell and scream or gesture or do anything that could cause the driver to get angry with you. His vehicle weighs much more than yours and next time he may decide to come much closer.
    • Observe the same rules and laws of the road as other vehicles. Stay on the right side of the road, obey traffic signals, and observe the speed limits. (A cycle computer would be a help).
    • Ride single file, not side by side.
    • Let other riders know what your intentions are. Let them know if you are stopping and when passing another rider let him know your are on his left or on his right.
    • Use hand signals to let motorists and other cyclists know what you are going to do. Also use hand or voice signals to point out road hazards or approaching vehicles.
    • Cross railroad tracks at a right angle.
    • When riding the highway, stay our of loose gravel whenever possible. If you must ride through loose gravel, don't do anything sudden and try to avoid turning.
    • Watch for opening doors on parked cars. They will try to swallow you.

     

  9. What are the advantages of drafting? Know how to safely and properly draft.
    • Drafting properly can save much energy. Studies done by "Bicycling Magazine" have shown a energy saving of 12 to 15 percent at certain speeds. Drafting etiquette says you should trade off with the lead rider and give him a chance to draft. When leading a pace line, change speeds gradually to give the other riders a chance to speed up or slow down with you. When drafting, maintain a comfortable distance between your front tire and the back tire of the rider in front of you. The closer you get, the greater the effect of the draft, but that comfortable distance is variable depending on your own experience and familiarity with the other riders. Don't ever overlap your front tire with the back tire of the rider in front of you. If he has to move suddenly for any reason, you will probably both go down.

     

  10. Know the different clothing and safety equipment used in bicycling and the advantages of each.
    • Helmets - Wear one. Any ANSI and SNELL approved helmet will help to protect your head in a crash. Helmets save lives and are much less expensive than brain surgery.
    • Shorts - There are different types of shorts. Probably the most popular shorts are of the spandex kind. They are available with or without padding and are comfortable and aerodynamic. Touring shorts are available with or without padding and have a more casual look. Touring shorts are comfortable and cool.
    • Gloves - Wearing cycling gloves will prevent numb or tingling hands and wrists. Cycling gloves have padding in the palms and on the inside of the fingers. All but cold-weather gloves have the fingers exposed past the first joint so shifting gears and arranging gear and that kind of thing can be done without removing the gloves.
    • Shoes - Bicycling shoes are good to use because they are usually lighter and have a much stiffer sole than tennis shoes or running shoes. After riding with cycling shoes, riding with running shoes feels like stepping in marshmellows. This uses more energy to compress the sole of the running shoe that could be used to move the bike down the road.
    • Toe Clips - Toe clips when used properly make riding much more efficient. There is also available clipless pedals that use a binding something like snow skis. The shoes have cleats on them that clip right into the binding. The newer bindings allow for some rotation of the foot so that the foot can rest at its normal angle rather than straight ahead. This can help to avoid injuring the knees.
    • Mirrors - Use of mirrors is a good idea because turning back to check for oncoming traffic can cause you to deviate from your path and also causes you to not be looking in the direction of travel.
    • Reflectors - Putting reflective tape on the wheels, your helmet or anything else, especially on surfaces facing the rear, will greatly improve your visibility in low-light conditions. Reflectors on your pedals will give some motion to drivers approaching from behind. A white reflector on the front of a bike and a red one on the rear is not only a good idea, but is required by law in most areas.

     

  11. Have the following riding record while working on this honor:
    • Make three single-day 20-mile rides in different locations.
    • Make a 100-mile tour, involving three days of riding.

     

  12. Write a 500-word description of the 100-mile tour.